Glossary for English learning and assessment

This glossary provides a list of terms and definitions in alphabetical order that are specific to English learning and assessment.

It can serve as a quick reference for terms, acronyms and abbreviations that you may not be familiar with. It is a valuable source of definitions for terms that are used throughout this and similar websites.

The English learning glossary can be a valuable resource for anyone who is looking to understand and communicate more effectively about English learning and assessment.


CEFR acronyms in different languages:

English: CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages),
spanishcefr Spanish: MCER (Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas),
portuguseCEFR Portuguese: QECR (Quadro Europeu Comum de Referência para as Línguas),
germanCEFR German: GeRS (Gemeinsame europäische Referenzrahmen für Sprachen),
frenchCEFR French: CECR (Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues),
ItalianCEFR Italian: QCER (Quadro comune europeo di riferimento per le lingue),
polishCEFR Polish: ESOKJ (Europejski System Opisu Kształcenia Językowego),
CzechCEFR Czech: SERR (Společný evropský referenční rámec pro jazyky),
SlovakCEFR Slovak: SERR (Spoločný európsky referenčný rámec pre jazyky),
TurkishCEFR Turkish: Avrupa Ortak Dil Referansı Çerçevesi,
BulgarianCEFR Bulgarian: ОЕЕР (Общата европейска езикова рамка,
RussianCEFR Russian: Общеевропейские компетенции владения иностранным языком.



Achievement Test

Achievement test evaluates learners’ understanding of a specific course or study programme and measures how much they have learned in a specific time. It is often used to measure the skills and knowledge learned in a given grade level, usually through planned instruction, such as training or classroom instruction.

Admission Test

The admission test is an examination that educational institutions conduct to select prospective students for admission. For admission purposes, Tracktest offers the Verified exam with the verified identity taken in proctored environment online.

AERA (American Educational Research Association)

AERA is a national research society that strives to advance knowledge about education, to encourage scholarly inquiry related to education, and to promote the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Tracktest is an international affiliate of AERA since 2019.

ALTE (Association of Language Testers in Europe)

ALTE is an association of language exam providers in Europe. It was founded in 1989 by the University of Cambridge (UK) and the Universidad de Salamanca (Spain). TrackTest is an institutional affiliate of ALTE since 2016.


The BAC (Baccalauréat)

The Baccalauréat is a French state diploma that evaluates the student’s skills after 3 years of high school study. The English proficiency exam is part of each BAC exam. TrackTest helps students to practice their English skills before their final BAC exams. They get also an international English certificate as proof of their English proficiency which can be used in a business environment or for further studies.

BEC (Business English Certificate)

Business English Certificate now known as B2 Business Vantage, is an English exam provided by Cambridge Assessment English.

BULATS (Business Language Testing Service)

The Business Language Testing Service (BULATS) was an English language test provided by Cambridge English Language Assessment, discontinued at the end of 2019.


CAE (Cambridge Advanced English)

Cambridge Advanced English now known as C1 Advanced is an English exam provided by Cambridge Assessment English.

CAEL (Canadian Academic English Language)

The Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Test is a test designed to measure the English language proficiency of students planning to study in Canadian post-secondary institutions.

CAT (Computerized Adaptive Testing or Computer Aided Testing)

CAT is a form of computer-based test that adapts to the examinee’s ability level.

CBT (Computer-Based Testing)

See CAT.

CECR (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence)

CECR (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence) is the French acronym for CEFR.

CEFR/CEF (Common European Framework of Reference/Common European Framework)

CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) is composed of six reference English levels (A1-C2) which are widely accepted as the global standard for grading an individual’s language proficiency.

CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults)

CELTA is an initial teacher training qualification for teaching English as a second or foreign language (ESL and EFL). It is provided by Cambridge English Language Assessment.

CELTYL (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners)

CELTYL stands for Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners.

CLB/CELPIP (Canadian Language Benchmarks/Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program)

The Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) includes a 12-point scale of task-based language proficiency descriptors used to guide the teaching and assessment of ESL learners in Canada

CPE (Cambridge Proficiency English)

Cambridge Proficiency English now known as C2 Proficiency is an English exam provided by Cambridge Assessment English.

Curriculum (in EFL)

The school curriculum is the path of a student within an educational project.

CV (Curriculum Vitae)

Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a short written description of job candidates’ education, qualifications, previous jobs, and sometimes also personal interests, that they send to an employer when they are trying to get a job. The version of the CV defined by the European Union is called Europass CV.


DELTA (Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults)

DELTA is an English language teaching (ELT) qualification for experienced Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) and Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It is provided by Cambridge English Language Assessment.

Diagnostic test

A Diagnostic Test is an examination used for the identification of an individual’s specific areas of weakness and strength. TrackTest provides a deficit analysis/weaknesses feedback in each individual exam report.

DOS (Director Of Studies)

The DOS is a member of staff at an educational institution (school, university etc) who is responsible for overseeing the ESL curriculum.


EAL (English as an additional language)

EAL refers to any students who speak languages other than English. The learner may already be fluent in several other languages or dialects, which is why we don’t use the term English as a second language (ESL or E2L).

EALTA (European Association for Language Testing and Assessment)

EALTA is a professional association for language testers in Europe. TrackTest researchers are the members of EALTA-CEFR Special Interest Group.

EAP (English for Academic purposes)

EAP is a branch of ESP. EAP is concerned with those communication skills in English which are required for study purposes in the formal education systems, usually use in a higher education setting than ESP.

Eaquals (Evaluation and Accreditation of Quality Language Services)

Eaquals is a not-for-profit organisation founded in 1991 with the mission to foster excellence in language education across the world by providing guidance and support to teaching institutions and individuals. Their associate members include British Council, Cambridge English Language Assessment, Trinity College, ETS, and others. TrackTest is an associate member of EAQUALS since 2019.

EF (Education First)

EF is an international education company that specializes in language training, academic degree programs, cultural exchange and educational travel.

EFL (English as a Foreign Language)

The acronym “EFL” is a synonym of English as a Second Language (ESL) used more in non-English speaking countries. For more details, refer to ESL.

ELA (English Language Arts)

ELA is a subject taught in North-American schools that typically consists of a combination of English reading, writing (composition), speaking, and listening.

ELL (English Language Learner)

They are students who are unable to communicate fluently or learn effectively in English. They come from non-English speaking countries.

ELT (English Language Teaching)

English Language Teaching (ELT) is the teaching of English to people whose first language is not English.

EP (English Profile)

EP describes what aspects of English are typically learned at each CEFR level.

ESL/E2L (English as a Second Language/English Languages)

These acronyms are mostly used in English-speaking countries. The study program for non-native speakers.

ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages)

Synonym to ESL.

ESP (English for special purposes)

ESP usually refers to teaching the English language to university students or people already in employment, with reference to the particular vocabulary and skills they need. It is centered on the language (grammar, lexis), skills, and discourse appropriate to these activities.

ETS (Educational Testing Service)

ETS is the US-based provider of TOEIC and TOEFL English tests.


FCE (First Certificate in English)

The First Certificate in English now known as B2 First, is an English exam provided by Cambridge Assessment English.

Four Language Skills

There are four different skills in language: Listening, Reading, Speaking and Writing. Tracktest offers a 4-skills English exam under the name the Complete test.


GER (Gemeinsamer Europäischer Referenzrahmen)

GER (Gemeinsamer Europäischer Referenzrahmen) is the German acronym for CEFR.


HR (Human Resources)

HR is the department of a business or organization that deals with the hiring, administration, and training of staff.
TrackTest provides special features for the English assessment of employees and job candidates via the English for Companies platform.


IATEFL (International Association for Teachers of English as a Foreign Language)

IATEFL is an organisation in the field of English language learning and teaching. It was founded in 1967 in Britain. TrackTest researchers are members of the IATEFL’s Testing, Evaluation and Assessment SIG.

ICAEA (International Civil Aviation English Association)

The International Civil Aviation English Association (ICAEA) is a non-profit association created in 1984. It helps develop expertise in the use, training and testing of English in all aviation professions. TrackTest provides general-purpose online English assessment for aviation and hospitality attendants. TrackTest researchers are members of the ICAEA.

IELTS (International English Language Testing System)

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is a test that measures the language proficiency of people who want to study or work in environments where English is used as a language of communication.


K-12 (Kindergarten to 12th grade)

K-12 is a term used in education and educational technology in the United States and Canada. K-12 is publicly-supported school grades prior to college. These grades are kindergarten (K) and the 1st through 12th grade.


LMS (Learning Management System)

LMS is a software application used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. It provides an instructor with a way to create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and assess student performance. TrackTest provides a possible integration with various LMS systems, such as Moodle, Canvas, Blackboard and others.

L&D (Learning and Development)

L&D involves improving the effectiveness of organizations and the individuals and teams within them. Training may be viewed as related to immediate changes in organizational effectiveness via organized instruction, while development is related to the progress of longer-term organizational and employee goals.
Tracktest provides special features for the English assessment of employees and job candidates via the English for Companies platform.

L2 Learners

A person’s second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker but is learned later.


MCER (El Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para los Idiomas)

MCER (El Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para los Idiomas) is the Spanish acronym for CEFR.


PET (Cambridge Preliminary Test)

Cambridge Preliminary Test now known as B1 Preliminary is an English exam provided by Cambridge Assessment English.

Placement test

A placement test is a test given by a school to determine the academic or skill level of a student in order to place him in the right group level.
TrackTest provides a short English placement test free of charge for individuals and organisations.

Proficiency test

Proficiency tests measure how learners are able to use the knowledge or skills they have learned in real-time situation(s).


QCER (Quadro comune europeo di riferimento)

QCER (Quadro comune europeo di riferimento) is an Italian acronym for CEFR.


RSA (Royal Society of Arts)

Until 1988 CELTA and DELTA were provided by RSA, then transferred to Cambridge English Language Assessment.


Syllabus (in EFL)

The syllabus is an academic document that communicates information about a specific course and defines expectations and responsibilities.


TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language)

TEFL refers to teaching the English language to students with different first languages.

TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages)

TESOL is the largest professional organization for teachers of English as a second or foreign language.

TEYL (Teaching English to Young Learners)

Programs for teaching children from 4 to 15 years old.

TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language)

TOEFL is a standardized test to measure the English language ability of non-native speakers wishing to enroll in English-speaking universities, provided by ETS.

TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication)

The TOEIC test is an English language test designed specifically to measure the everyday English skills of people working in an international environment. It is provided by ETS.

TSE (Test of Spoken English)

The Test of Spoken English (TSE) was an oral test developed by Educational Testing Service. In 2010, the TSE has been replaced by the speaking portion of the TOEFL.

TWE (Test of Written English)

The Test of Written English (TWE) is a written test developed by Educational Testing Service (ETS).

Identify your English level